Claim: A conclusion that answers a question about scientific phenomena or a solution to a problem.
Counterclaim: A conclusion that opposes or disagrees with the claim.
Credible: Reasonable, convincing.
Doldrums: A period of inactivity.
Formal style: A set of writing conventions that are appropriate for a specific type of writing, often characterized by standard English, complex sentence structures, infrequent use of personal pronouns, and lack of jargon or slang.
Fracking: A process of using high pressure to inject liquids and chemicals into rocks below the earth’s surfaces in order to extract oil or natural gas.
Objective: Factual rather than opinionated.
Unbiased: Fair, neutral, without prejudice.
Validate: Justify, gives approval to.