This module is for Grades: 9-10 Welcome

Claims, evidence and reasoning are the building blocks of a good explanation, and a good explanation is essential to formulating a solid argument. An argument introduces another point of view by critically examining both sides of an issue. In science, there are often multiple, and sometimes opposing, claims that offer solutions to a problem or answers to a question. A well-written argument presents the claim(s), counterclaims, evidence and reasoning in an organized manner so that that reader gains a full understanding of the topic.

Remember that identifying the claim, evidence and reasoning in a text helps readers to deepen their understanding, and it also helps writers to organize their ideas about the topic.

In this module, you will learn how to build an argument by addressing the strengths and limitations of both claims and counterclaims in a way that meets the needs of the audience.

*If you have not already done so, be sure to complete Writing Explanation Part 1: Claims, Evidence and Reasoning Opens a new window and Writing Explanation Part 2: Crafting a Well-Written Explanation Opens a new window before completing this module.

two students having a discussion

Focus Standard:

WHST.9-10.1 - Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.


Writing Argument

Module Objectives

By the end of this module, you will be able to:

  • Identify claims, evidence and reasoning in text in order to prepare for writing.
  • Write an argument including a claim, counterclaims, evidence and reasoning.
  • Use formal style and appropriate words and phrases to create a well-constructed, reasoned argument.